Limited arable land and a large rural labour force mean that, in general, China tends to have a comparative advantage in the production of labour intensive crops, such as fruits and vegetables, and a disadvantage in the production of land intensive crops, such as grains and oilseeds. Subject to criticism on account of imperfect enforcement, the patent law system has produced a stock of patents which has grown rapidly alongside economic growth. Using six unique waves of panel data collected between 1999 and 2007, we show that the benefits of Bt cotton continue 10 years after it has been commercialised, albeit with evidence of a decline in the benefit since the early adoption period. Mechanization is necessary to allow substantial increases in farm size. However, a large and increasing share of that support is provided in the form of credit subsidies; support which could be more productively oriented to areas such as research and extension, training, and the development of rural infrastructure. The analysis, however, does not find that improved property rights in cultivated land rental affect investment largely because property rights have largely been established by 2000, the first year of our sample.
© 2016 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. In the last two decades there has also been a dramatic increase in private section investment in agricultural biotechnology particularly in India. A six-equation rice sector model explaining provincial-level technology adoption, yield, and factor demand are econometrically estimated using data from China's 13 rice growing provinces for the period 1975—1990. Purpose — Developing nations need good cultivated land rental markets to foster rational resource use and to enhance productivity and equity. The estimated changes in prices and quantities due to liberalisation are then used as inputs to simulate how welfare gains and losses are distributed across various types of rural households in China.
The survey of existing rules at the national, bilateral and multilateral levels presented in this paper is a first step in determining whether there is a need to fill any gaps and in finding the most constructive ways of doing so. We find that the bilateral governance increases the likelihood of applying organic fertilizer in rented-in plots by 15-20%, and the quantity of organic fertilizer by 1. With good incentives, the research shows that they do save water. Policymakers need to create a better and more coherent policy environment to meet food demand sustainably Agricultural policy packages need to be both coherent and efficient to enable the sector to develop its full potential and achieve key public policy objectives. The purpose of this paper is to measure the correlation between the emergence of off-farm employment and cultivated land rental in China. Smaller businesses in particular stand to gain from spill-overs of technology and managerial know-how, as well as opportunities to scale up and enhance productivity.
Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2018 This annual report is a unique source of up-to-date estimates of support to agriculture and is complemented by individual chapters on agricultural policy developments in all countries covered in the report. Copyright 2012 Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association. We examine nonlinearities in the relationship between rice yields and ozone concentrations and find that an additional day with a maximum ozone concentration greater than 120 ppb is associated with a yield loss of 1. Our findings show that apart from economic factors, kinship is important to the functioning of farmland rental markets in rural areas. China's policy is to encourage the consolidation of farms and promote farms that are larger in scale. Over 87,000 reservoirs were built with a total water storage capacity of about 7,064 billion m3 to cope with droughts.
In such a severe situation, the Chinese government actively tests agricultural water use policy reforms to guarantee the basic agricultural water supplies and farmers' benefits, in order to support sustainable agricultural development and secure grain production with limited water resources. Where water is becoming scarce, farmers and community leaders have also responded in numerous ways. The paper concludes with a discussion of the priorities and challenges for the water sector, the progress that has been made to date and the improvements that will be required to ensure the long-term sustainable use of China's water resources. The analysis supports the notions that migration is an increasingly effective factor of population redistribution and that it has a strong relationship with regional development. While the Asian food economy has been experiencing significant transitions, it is widely believed that little transformation has occurred in farm land operation. However, at the same time, there is an emerging class of middle-sized and larger-sized farms. Until recently, migration has had a limited role to play in China's space economy because of central-planning logic and mechanisms.
In order to achieve this goal, several specific objectives are pursued. In the context of environmental change, an increasing tendency in drought frequency and severity is observed in China in recent years. There is growing concern that farmland transfers lead to less agricultural investment, which may adversely affect agricultural productivity growth in China. The new technology, which enabled the creation of transgenic crops, looked poised to offset major challenges facing the agricultural sector, including population growth, loss of valuable farmland to development, and land degradation. Table of Contents Chapter 1 - The Policy Context As China becomes a key player in global agro-food markets it is essential to understand the framework that has shaped developments in Chinese agriculture since the introduction of reforms in 1978. He is now focusing on labour economics and development economics, especially on migration, human capital and unemployment in China. In the face of these concerns, governments can feel pressure to implement protectionist policies and measures — including tariffs, quotas and various forms of subsidies — as a way of 'saving' domestic jobs and enterprises.
However, as a result of rapid regional development in the last two decades the competition for water has become very acute. While growth in demand for food, feed, fuel and fibres presents significant opportunities for agriculture, government policies must address challenges such as increasing productivity growth, enhancing environmental performance and adaptation to climate change, and improving resilience of farm households to market shocks brought on by weather and other unforeseen circumstances. The subsequent partnership for the annual report builds on these studies to follow agricultural policy developments. Existing information on such advantages is often either anecdotal or limited to individual cases. Este site está conforme o novo Acordo Ortográfico. Those firms that have been granted patents and those that claim their patents have been infringed upon both give lower ratings to the perceived effectiveness of patents.
Shortfalls in domestic food production can take their toll on international food markets. Climate change is creating a new level of uncertainty in water governance, requiring accelerated research to avoid water-related stresses. Policy safeguards are needed to shield food supply against such forces. The purpose of this paper is to empirically track the progress and consequences of the emergence of cultivated land markets in China since 2000. In particular, if students do not know the amount of financial aid that they can receive before they make a decision about where to go to college and what major to study, it may distort their decision. It finds that the conditions for structural change and innovation at the farm level in China could be further improved by securing the long-term stability of land rights as well as reducing transaction costs.