Carolin Duttlinger discusses Kafka's photographs. ³ ¹ Revealingly, the fear of blindness betrayed by the dream is underpinned by a biographical subtext which associates visual impairment with the feminine, maternal position. I will write a poem. Far from being a tool of self- mastery, then, optical technologies in Das Schloß alienate the viewer from both himself and his surroundings. Unermeßlich traurige Augen beherrschen die ihnen vorbestimmte Landschaft, in die die Muschel eines großen Ohrs hineinhorcht. This strategy echoes a nineteenth-century psychiatric practice in which patients were supposedly cured by being confronted with photographs of themselves. Whereas photography in Der Verschollene brings together a wide range of different sources and contexts, its appearance in Die Verwandlung is restricted to just two images.
Was soll ich ¨ dann machen? Only two days later, Kafka receives not just one but several more pictures from Grete: Liebes Fräulein Grete, nun habe ich die Bilder, sie liegen vor mir, das am Denkmal ist das schönste so matt stützen Sie sich auf Ihre Nachbarin? The photograph of the state visit serves as a covert reference to a more personal memory, the split-up with Felice and the ensuing weeks of private despair. Bibliography Index 250 260 275 List of Illustrations 1. Struck greatly revisits the paintings of the nice allegorists, which has been underappreciated. Even so, this sight drove K. Children often make reluctant sitters, and the sight of them posing in stuffy costumes in kitsch surroundings exposes the humiliating and ridiculous character of this photographic masquerade. Given his lifelong fascination with the mass media, it is rather surprising that the extensive coverage of the war seems to have left hardly any traces in his writings.
Your right arm is missing. Criminological modes of perception and interpretation thus became an essential characteristic of modernity, and while the traces of this development can be discerned across turn-of-the-century art and literature,² Der Proceß The Trial, 1914—15 provides a particularly striking illustration of this development. Tombstones: a lady dragging the train of her dress over a low step opens a door part way, looking backward all the while. Tania Stern and James Stern London: Minerva, 1992 Briefe an Ottla und die Familie, ed. N1A 206 shows a meeting between the Czar of Russia and the President of France. Providing a chronological account of key prose works, as well as the personal writings, this study is accessible to students and lay readers.
Photography thus opens up the text towards a wider context, while also underlining its carefully crafted inner structure. Er weiß kaum mehr, wie die Dinge im Leben stehen, erklärt seinen Besuchern neben den altertümlichsten Geräten Taschentücher, Handspiegel etc. Richard Winston and Clara Winston, ed. B1 306 The lighting, the position, and the mood of those in the picture make it all look most mysterious, and the key to the mystery is on the table in front, lying beside its box, but this does not make the whole thing any clearer. What is more, their serious expressions contrast with the smiling faces of Czar and President, thus belying the cheerful facade of the encounter. But where is your other hand, and why do your neighbours press so close to you? Interestingly, however, this anachronism only enhanced its attraction as an object of literary description.
Und der Hut, dessen Rand an jeder Stelle mit anderer Biegung in die Höhe aus dem Gesichte gehoben ist. In that case, what am I to do? Der Proceß: The Criminological Gaze 173 7. Der Verschollene 89 chooses a photograph of his grandparents rather than his parents as a model for this passage counters any straightforwardly Oedipal, biographical interpretations. In both cases, visual contact is replaced by the sensation of touch. In this respect, the project of reading Kafka in the light of photography is not merely an attempt to situate his texts within a wider sociocultural context, but also constitutes a reaction against a dominant strand of Kafka scholarship emblematized by critics such as Max Brod.
²³ Max Brod, Über Franz Kafka Frankfurt a. When read alongside each other, their notes illustrate fundamental differences in outlook and approach, not least regarding the underlying issues of perception and experience. It will be of interest not only to literary scholars but also to those working in photography, media, and cultural studies. Glatzer New York: Schocken, 1982 Briefe an die Eltern aus den Jahren 1922—1924, ed. In fact, this relationship between text and image goes beyond the level of content. Thus the cinematic apparatus conditions both performer and viewer by imposing its fragmenting perspective onto visual reality. In his diary, descriptions of the viewed scenes alternate with more general comments on the Kaiser Panorama, its representational technique, and its place in modern culture.
Auf einem Bilde, das sie im Bett darstellt, sind die Brüste, so wie sie ausgebreitet und geschwollen förmlich geronnen aussehn, und der zum Nabel gehobene Bauch gleichwertige Berge. I pointed him out Der Proceß 177 to Weltsch who, from his sofa, leaned out of the window. Yes, one can see the little watch chain, the brooch is pretty, the hair waved and almost too seriously arranged. From Film to Photography 37 of an intricate process of mediation. An expression freed from its constricting form and bringing about a similar liberation of contents.
Confronted with the camera, the sitter thus 84 Der Verschollene must adopt the kind of focused, unwavering gaze which Karl fails to achieve in relation to the spectacles of the American city and for whose lack he is reprimanded by the uncle. As before, then, the cinematic experience is associated with modern, fast-moving means of transportation. While photographic modes of perception thus shape the narrative, such scenes are frequently based on extra-textual sources. Ist es so, unvorsichtige Liebste? As a subsequent letter illustrates, Kafka is fully aware of this mechanism: Deine erste Photographie ist mir unendlich lieb, denn dieses kleine Mädchen existiert nicht mehr und die Photographie ist diesmal alles. Whenever I look at your picture—it is standing in front of me now—I marvel at the strength which binds us together. It is no coincidence, moreover, that the tongue is also the organ of speech; by immersing himself in the multisensory spectacle laid out before him, the writer can successfully record and relate this encounter. His attraction frequently gives way to an unsettling sense of exposure, and his fascination is interwoven with a latent anxiety: the fear of being conditioned and invaded by such spectacles as the girl in his dream.
See Gerhard Kemner and Gelia Eisert, Lebende Bilder: Eine Technikgeschichte des Films Berlin: Nicolai, 2000 , 57—8, and Naomi Rosenblum, A World History of Photography, 3rd edn New York: Abbeville Press, 1997 , 448—50; indeed, a similar technique is employed in the case of the soldier photograph with its retrospectively applied golden buttons. Her current project explores concepts of attentiveness in twentieth-century literature, science, and culture. It will be of interest not only to literary scholars but also to those working in photography, media, and cultural studies. This perversion of the truth, familiar to the hunger artist though it was, always unnerved him afresh and proved too much for him. As the story unfolds, however, the distinction between the early period of fame and the subsequent decline is progressively undermined.