In addition, a generous fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, which I am especially appreciative of, allowed me to spend time at these centers and devote most of my efforts there to writing this book. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the support of my family—Ellen, Nelly, Katey, and Peter D—who endured more extended absences away from home for this book project than probably is warranted. Examining case studies from The Gambia, Ghana, Mozambique, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Somalia, Peter D. Using data from the droughts of 1999-2000 and 2002-2003, the chapter argues that while the Ethiopian government calls for food aid recipients to work for food instead of developing dependence, in fact, aid recipients and non-recipients pursue virtually the same livelihood strategies, and with similar outcomes. Other chapters in the book report on more recent field research that I conducted in conjunction with other research projects.
The book's long maturation period also means additional colleagues and friends played important roles in its completion. While the market is open in Mozambique, very little support for business training and little government protection for local industry and innovation makes it difficult for a large group of per-urban traders to escape persistent poverty. It relied on an unusually rich mix of quantitative and qualitative data from a multiple round 7 study of 416 randomly selected households during 2000—2003; ethnographic case studies of 62 of the 416 households with initial visits in 2001—2002 and repeat visits during 2004—2005 and 2007; and a series of detailed interviews with key informants and focus groups of male and female farmers and traders. The Il Chamus took the Government of Kenya to court and won the right to have their own political constituency; however, the right was never enforced, and the new constitution of 2010 returned Kenya to a smaller number of counties. By a number of measures — cash income, access to health, improved water, education, etc.
Being somewhat of a visual learner, I find comparative studies that go back and forth like this somewhat disjointed and a bit confusing. What then is neoliberalism, and how is the term used in the book? The work is best read as a whole, but in case you are interested in a specific aspect of development policy or a certain geographical region, read below to find out how this book may be applicable to your interests. Manufactured in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Little, Peter D. African Studies Bulletin The achievements in this book are multiple. Transitions clearly had come to the area, consistent with the reform agendas of the 1980s and 1990s. The final case study in Chapter 7 has perhaps increased in relevance since Al-Shabaab's attack in Nairobi in 2013. The book's long gestation was worth the wait.
Little's study of six field sites gives a good glimpse at the trends, but it would be helpful to see a broader assessment, and possibly one that takes other countries into account. In the remainder of this chapter, the historical and intellectual background to this project and the book's organization are presented. Little shows how rural farmers and others respond to complex agendas of governments, development agencies, and non-governmental organizations. The politics of famine and food security have long been at the top of the development discourse. Little shows how rural farmers and others respond to complex agendas of governments, development agencies, and non-governmental organizations. African Studies Review This book is well written and the narratives are enlightening.
This project allowed fieldwork back in Baringo District, Kenya, the location of my dissertation research, as well as research in The Gambia, West Africa, where I had not previously worked. One could argue that because their economies were not well integrated into the global financial and investment networks that unraveled during 2008—2009, they have been less affected by the recent economic turmoil. Once again in this chapter, Little challenges common development and democratization discourse by showing how the spread of democracy to the local level may create instability among ethnic groups, and in fact such bases for democracy often reinforce ethnic divisions, since politics in the wake of Daniel Arap Moi and other leaders who have rewarded their supporters — often co-ethnics, family, and friends — once the leader obtains political power. If any study in this book should be expanded, I think it ought to be this one. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Chapter 7 stems from studies of Somali traders that began in southern Somalia during 1986—1988 and continued in neighboring Garissa District, Kenya, during the summers of 1996—1998, 2001, and 2008. They are fundamentally different uses, but often are lumped together under the term neoliberalism.
Chapter 5: Food aid dependence in South Wollo, Ethiopia The politics of famine and food security have long been at the top of the development discourse. During the summers of 2003 and 2004 a subset of these households or their descendants were reinter-viewed in order to gauge changes in wealth accumulation, education, migration, and other social and economic phenomena over an approximately twenty-year period. Chapter 5 shows how the Ethiopian government uses a discourse of food insecurity, distributions of food aid, and required participation in development projects to maintain control over rural populations in the Amhara region of northern Ethiopia. Economic and Political Reform in Africa: Anthropological Perspectives. It was a workable and relatively safe delineation of a peri-urban space. Little shows how rural farmers and others respond to complex agendas of governments, development agencies, and non-governmental organizations.
American Anthropologist Political and Economic Reform in Africa is a sharp and insightful book, offering the reader firsthand knowledge of the effects of neoliberal policies and donor-initiated development on rural farming and herding populations on the ground. Indeed, a foreign private group had quite literally taken over the public space once occupied by departments of the Kenyan government, where I once sat with notebook in hand studying local government archives. In addition to those mentioned so far, the support of the following individuals is warmly appreciated: Edward Ackah, Abdel Ghaffar Ahmed, David Brokensha, Barbara Cellarius, Dejene N. Little definitely seems to be more in his element in writing these chapters, which focus on the Il Chamus community of Kenya, in which he has done quite a lot of research. Chapter 1 compares contract farming in the non-traditional commodities sector - specifically, in fresh fruits and vegetables - in The Gambia and Ghana, showing how programs intended to benefit smallholder farmers eventually served to support the centralization of fresh fruit and vegetable production under a small number of export-oriented farms which dumped produce not fit for export into local markets, undercutting other local farmers. Smallholders in Ghana fared somewhat better than those in The Gambia due to World Bank and government support for Ghanaian cooperatives.
The book explores the contradictions between what policy reforms were supposed to do and what actually happened in local communities. Street trading provides an escape from poverty for some according to my fieldwork in Johannesburg, a number of large business owners started out as street hawkers, but most had some education in business or economics , but for many, it provides only a subsistence livelihood. Little shows how rural farmers and others respond to complex agendas of governments, development agencies, and non-governmental organizations. In Chapter 2, Little demonstrates how economic reform in Mozambique reduced formal-sector employment, increased cheap imports, devalued currency, and aggravated food costs in Maputo, pushing many residents into petty trade. However, I have also seen people who have stepped from being street hawkers to owning multiple businesses by being smart and creative with their resources clearly the exception, not the norm. I particularly am indebted to both directors at the time, Ohta-san Itaru at Kyoto and David Anderson at Oxford, for inviting me to the centers and making the visits so productive and enjoyable.